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(THE CONVERSATION) If the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention revised its instructions on wearing a mask on May 13, 2021, many Americans were left somewhat confused. Now anyone who is fully vaccinated can participate in indoor and outdoor activities, large or small, without wearing a mask or moving away from the body.
Anthony Fauci, President Biden’s chief medical adviser, said the new standard is “in line with the evolution of science”And“ serves as an incentive ”for nearly two-thirds of Americans who have not yet been fully vaccinated to continue and shoot.
But some people not vaccinated due to underlying conditions. Some have weakened immune systems, from cancer or medical treatment, may not be fully protectedby their vaccination. Children ages 12 to 15 became eligible for the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine only on May 10, 2021. And COVID-19 vaccines have not yet been approved for almost 50 million children in the US younger than 12.
As the bans were lifted and people began to leave their masks at home, some people were worried: Will you get COVID-19 from someone who is vaccinating?
Vaccines do not always prevent infection
Fortunately, vaccines are available moreSUCCESSFUL expected For example, of Israel’s 6.5 million residents, aged 16 years and older, the vaccine Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA COVID-19 was found to be 95.3% effective after the same shot. Within two months, among 4.7 million fully vaccinated, detected infections dropped 30-fold. Similar to California and Texas, Only 0.05% of fully vaccinated health care workers are positive for COVID-19.
Vaccine manufacturers have always hoped that, in addition to disease prevention, their vaccines will achieve “sterilizing resistance, ”Where vaccination prevents the germ from even actually entering the body. This sterilizing immunity means that the one who is vaccinated will not catch the virus nor will it be transmitted. For a vaccine to be effective, however, it is not necessary to prevent the virus from infecting a person who has been vaccinated.
the Salk inactivated polio vaccine, for example, not completely stop polio virus from the growth of the human intestine. But it is more effective to prevent disease prevention because it produces antibodies that prevent the virus from infecting the brain and spinal cord. GOOD vaccines provide effective and robust training for the body’s immune system, so if it actually encounters the cause of the disease pathogen, it is ready to give a most competent response.
With the advent of COVID-19, immunologists still know what they call “protection relations, ”Factors that predict how protected a person is against the coronavirus. Researchers believe that a very high amount in “neutralizing antibodies, “The type that not only binds to the virus but also prevents it from infecting, is enough to avoid repeat infections. Scientists also examined the strength of resistance that COVID-19 vaccines provide and where in the body it worked.
Can the coronavirus infect a vaccinated person?
Immunologists expect that vaccines that protect against viral diseases will also reduce virus transmission after vaccination. But it’s really hard to know for sure if vaccinated people haven’t spread the virus.
COVID-19 presents a specific challenge because people with symptomatic and pre-symptomatic infections can spread the disease-and inadequate contact tracking and testing means no symptoms. rarely found. Some scientists estimate the number of asymptomatic COVID-19 infections in the general population. can be 3 to 20 times higher than to count in confirmed cases. Research suggests that cases of undocumented COVID-19 in people who have no symptoms or have experienced a very mild illness may be responsible. up to 86% of all infections, though other studies contrary to high estimates.
on a study, CDC tests volunteer health care staff and other workers at eight U.S. locations for SARS-CoV-2 infections every week for three months, regardless of symptoms or vaccination status. The researchers found that participants who had been fully vaccinated were 25 times less likely to test positive for COVID-19 than those without the vaccine. Findings like this mean that if people are vaccinated as well as protected from getting infected at all, they nor can it be spread the virus. But without contact tracking to track the migration of a larger population, it is impossible to know if the assumption is true.
What we know for sure is that if someone gets sick with COVID-19 after vaccination, the so-called “breakthrough infection,” the symptoms may be more subtle. Studies have found that people who test positive for COVID-19 are subsequently taken their first dose of vaccination there low levels of the virus in their bodies than the unfilled people who are positive. Researchers believe that reducing hints of viral load vaccinating people who contract the virus may be less contagious because they have a much smaller virus that can spread to others.
A preprint study that has not been peer reviewed suggests that the Moderna mRNA COVID-19 vaccine can fight coronavirus. antibodies to oral and nasal fluid. from there is the entry of SARS-CoV-2, oral and nasal antibodies must prevent the virus from entering the body, effectively providing “sterilizing immunity.” This also means that vaccinated people may not have spread the virus through respiratory droplets.
These pieces of evidence are promising. But without much study, scientists not yet finished that COVID-19 vaccines actually protect against all transmission. Study test to directly answer this question by tracking contact is just beginning: Researchers can track COVID-19 infections in vaccinated and unvaccinated volunteers and their close contact.
Protection and prevention go hand in hand
Vaccines help slow the spread of an infectious disease by breaking the chain of infection. Those who are infected eventually have fewer and fewer unprotected people to transmit the virus. This is how the vaccine rises host of resistance -dangerous and unvaccinated people are surrounded by a “herd” of people who have become immune, thanks to vaccination or previous infection. But studies have suggested that, for a combination of biological and social factors, vaccination alone is unlikely to achieve host loss against COVID-19 and complete coronavirus infection.
Basically, vaccination alone can take a long time to eradicate any disease. Even diseases that are almost “eliminated” – such as chickenpox, measles and pertussis – can be returned to the surface with weakening resistance and declining vaccine rates.
The recent surge in infections among vaccinated the New York Yankees showed that vaccinated people can not only get infected, they can also transmit the coronavirus through close contacts. Tested groups, such as professional sports teams, pointed to the fact that mild, asymptomatic infections among the vaccinated majority population may be more frequent than reported. A similar outbreak of airport workers in Singapore showed that, even among fully vaccinated, new and numerous infectious variants can spread quickly.
CDC’s relax rules on masking are intended to reassure vaccinated people that they are safe from serious illness. And they are. Although the photo is not very clearly cut for those who have not yet been identified with them. Until hostile immunity against COVID-19 is reached, and clear evidence accumulates that vaccinated people do not spread the virus, I and many epidemiologists believes it is better to avoid situations with chances of being overwhelmed. Vaccination combined with continued masking and social isolation is another effective way to stay safer.
This article is also published from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article HERE
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