Overall the number of cancer deaths continues to decline among men and women for all races and ethnic groups in the United States, according to the latest National Annual Report on the State of Cancer. During 2001 to 2018, the decline in the number of lung cancer deaths accelerated, and the death rate for melanoma has dropped sharply in recent years, showing a significant increase in survival for metastatic melanoma. However, the report found that for many other primary cancers, including prostate, colorectal and female breast cancers, previously declining trends in mortality rates were slow or disappearing.
The report, can be found at JNCI: The Journal of the National Cancer Institute, It is also known that overall cancer incidence rates continue to increase among women, children, and adolescents and adults (AYA). All trends in this report cover the period before the COVID-19 pandemic.
The annual report is a joint effort among the American Cancer Society (ACS); the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health; and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR).
The report showed declining mortality rates for 11 of the 19 most common cancers in men, and for 14 of the 20 most common cancers in women, at the latest stage (2014 -2018). Although declining trends in mortality rates have accelerated for lung cancer and melanoma during this period, the previously declining trends in the collection of breast and female colorectal cancer are slowing and the those for prostate cancer are lowered. The death toll has increased for some cancers such as brain and other nervous system and pancreas of the same sex, oral cavity and pharynx in men, and liver and uterus in women.
“The decline in lung cancer and melanoma mortality is the result of an increase in overall cancer progression – from reduced smoking rates to cancer prevention to findings such as targeted drug therapies and resistance at the resistance checkpoint, ”said Karen E. Knudsen, MBA, PhD., Chief Executive Officer, American Cancer Society. “As we celebrate progress, we must continue to be confident in research, patient support, and advocacy that will make even more progress to improve the lives of cancer patients and their families.”
An analysis of long -standing trends in cancer death rates in this year’s report also shows that the death rate declined accelerated in both men and women from 2001 to 2018. In men, a a decrease of 1.8% per annum in 2001-2015 accelerated to a decrease of 2.3% per annum during the period 2015-2018. In women, the decline of 1.4% per year from 2001 to 2015 was accelerated by the decline of 2.1% per year during 2015-2018. The report finds that the overall number of cancer deaths decreased per race and ethnic group during 2014–2018.
“It is encouraging to see the continuing decline in mortality rates for most common cancers,” said Karen Hacker, MD, MPH, Director of the National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. “To eliminate health disparities and give everyone a chance to be as healthy as possible, we must continue to find new ways to reach people to continue cancer care-from screening and early detection to treatment and support for survivors. “
However, the increase in cancer incidence and mortality rate or decrease in previous declining trends for some other cancers such as colorectal and female breast cancer may be due to factors. at risk such as obesity.
“The continued decline in cancer death rates should please the cancer research community, as evidence that advances in science over many decades have made a real difference in outcomes at the population level, “said Norman E.” Ned “Sharpless, MD, Director of the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health. “I believe we can achieve even more improvements when we talk about obesity, which has the potential to overtake tobacco use to become a major change factor in relation to cancer.”
The authors report that the number of cancer deaths continues to decline among children (aged <15 years) and AYAs (ages 15-39 years) despite increasing incidence rates from 2001 to 2017. Overall the number of cancer incidents in children and AYA increased across all racial / ethnic groups except American Indian / Alaska Native (AI / AN) children where rates remained stable. The most common AYA cancer is female breast cancer.
“When examining health differences, it is critical to identify the social factors that influence the health of communities and access to health care,” said Betsy A. Kohler, MPH, NAACCR Executive Director. “Social and economic indicators, especially based on small area surveys, are especially important to understand underlying cancer disease.”
Other important findings include:
- In general cancer incidence rates are higher among men than women of every race and ethnic group, except for the Asian / Pacific Island population, where the rates are similar.
- In general cancer incidence rates are slightly shorter in Black people than White people.
- In contrast, the overall cancer death rate is higher among Black people than white people.
- Cases of liver cancer have previously been on the rise, but data show that rates remain the same for both men and women.
- Two-year life expectancy for advanced-stage melanoma cases diagnosed during 2001–2009 was stable, but it increased 3.1% per year for those diagnosed during 2009–2014.
- Two-year survival was relatively low for the early and middle stages of melanoma cases diagnosed during 2001–2014 (0.03% and 0.4% per year, respectively).
The authors show that these findings can help inform health providers about the need to increase efforts related to cancer prevention, early detection, and treatment, and for the need for in the equitable implementation of effective interventions, especially in underserved populations.
Article: Annual National Report on Cancer Status, Part I: National Cancer Statistics. JNCI: The Journal of the National Cancer Institute. doi: 10.1093 / jnci / djab131.
Embargo URL: https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djab131external icon
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